Rosa Luxemburg: Economics 
for a New Socialist Project


1. Hannah Arendt, Men in Dark Times (Harcourt Brace & Company, 1968), 33-56; Joan Robinson, “Introduction, ” in Rosa Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital (London: Routledge and Paul Kegan, 1951), 13-28; Michal Kalecki, “The Problem of Effective Demand With Tugan-Baranowski and Rosa Luxemburg,” in Collected Works of Michal Kalecki, Vol. II (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967, 1991); Tony Cliff, “Rosa Luxemburg – A Study, ” International Socialism, 1959 (2&3).

2. Raya Dunayevskaya, Rosa Luxemburg, Women’s Liberation, and Marx’s Philosophy of Revolution (University of Illinois Press, 1991); Andrea Nye, Philosophia: The Thought of Rosa Luxemburg, Simone Weil, and Hannah Arendt (London: Routledge, 1994), 3-53.

3. Lelio Basso, Rosa Luxemburg: A Reappraisal (Praeger, 1975); Norman Geras, The Legacy of Rosa Luxemburg (London: New Left Books, 1976).

4. Ingo Schmidt, “There Were Alternatives: Lessons from Efforts to Advance Beyond Keynesian and Neoliberal Economic Policies in the 1970s, ” Working USA, vol. 14, no. 4 (2011), 473-498; Jefferson Cowie, Stayin’ Alive: The 1970s and the Last Days of the Working Class (The New Press, 2010).

5. See for example the debate on Luxemburg in the pages of this journal in the early 2000s, New Politics, Nos. 31-32.

6. See special issues of Socialist Studies, vol. 6, no. 2 (2010) and Critique: Journal of Socialist Thought, vol. 40, no. 3 (2012); Riccardo Bellofiore, ed., Rosa Luxemburg and the Critique of Political Economy (London: Routledge, 2009); Ingo Schmidt, ed. Rosa Luxemburg’s Akkumulation des Kapitals (Hamburg: VSA Verlag, 2013).

7. Rosa Luxemburg, Complete Works, Vol. I: Economic Writings I (London: Verso, 2013), 89-300.

8. See his Class Struggles in France, 1848-1850, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, and The Civil War in France.

9. Rosa Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital (London: Routledge and Paul Kegan, 1951), chap. 14.

10. Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital, chaps. 16 & 17.

11. Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital, chaps. 30 & 32.

12. Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital, Section III: The Historical Conditions of Accumulation (chaps. 25-32).

13. E. P. Thompson, “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the 18th Century,” Past and Present, vol. 50, no. 1 (1971), 76-136.

14. W. A. Lewis developed a model of development with unlimited supplies of labor to understand post-World War II developments in the South but it seems also applicable to the pre-World War I North. See W. A. Lewis, “Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor,” Manchester School, 22 (1954), 139-191.

15. Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes (London: Abacus Books, 1994), part 1.

16. Samuel Bowles and Robert Boyer, “A Wage-led Employment Regime: Income Distribution, Labor Discipline, and Aggregate Demand in Welfare Capitalism, ” in Stephen Marglin and Juliet Schor, eds., The Golden Age of Capitalism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 187-217.

17. Rosa Luxemburg, “Reform or Revolution,” in Rosa Luxemburg Speaks (Pathfinder, 2011), 50-124; quotes from p. 100.

18. Samir Amin, “Self-Reliance and the New Economic Order, ” Monthly Review, vol. 29, no. 3 (1977), 1-21.

19. On lifeworlds, see Jürgen Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 2 (Beacon Press, 1985).

20. Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital, 447.

21. For a critique of such criticisms see Paul Zarembka. “Rosa Luxemburg’s ‘Accumulation of Capital’: Critics Try to Bury the Message, ” in Jennifer Lehmann, ed., Current Perspectives in Social Theory, 21 (2002), 3-45.

22. W. W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (Cambridge University Press, 1961), chap. 6.

23. Michal Kalecki, “Political Aspects of Full Employment, ” Political Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 4 (1943), 322-330.

24. Ingo Schmidt, “Rosa Luxemburg’s Accumulation of Capital: A Centennial Update with Additions from Long Wave Theory and Karl Polanyi’s Great Transformation, ” Critique: Journal of Socialist Thought, vol. 40, no. 3 (2012), 337-356.

25. David Harvey, The New Imperialism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), chap. 4.

26. Luxemburg, “Reform or Revolution, ” 58.

27. Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital, 203.

28. Luxemburg, Accumulation of Capital, 250.

29. Rosa Luxemburg, “The Mass Strike, The Political Party and the Trade Unions, ” in Rosa Luxemburg Speaks (Pathfinder, 2011), 205-290, quote from p. 234.

30. Luxemburg, “Mass Strike, Party and Unions,” 271.

31. Rosa Luxemburg, “The Junius Pamphlet: The Crisis in the German Social Democracy, ” in Rosa Luxemburg Speaks (Pathfinder, 2011), 342-439.

32. Beverly Silver, Forces of Labor: Workers’ Movements and Globalization since 1870 (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 20.

33. Peter Hudis, “Accumulation, Imperialism, and Pre-Capitalist Formations: Luxemburg and Marx on the non-Western World, ” Socialist Studies, vol. 6, no. 2 (2010), 75-91.

34. Rosa Luxemburg, “The Industrial Development of Poland,” Complete Works, Vol. I: Economic Writings I (London: Verso, 2013), 1-78.

35. Rosa Luxemburg, “Fragment über Krieg, nationaleFrage und Revolution,” GesammelteWerke, Vol. 4 (Berlin: Dietz Verlag 1983), 366-373.

36. For a full account on the rise and fall of developmental regimes see Vijay Prashad, The Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World (New Press, 2007).

37. Richard B. Day and Daniel Gaido, eds., Discovering Imperialism: Social Democracy to World War I ( Haymarket Books, 2012).

38. Habermas, Theory of Communicative Action.