Neoliberal Imperialism, 
The Latest Stage of Capitalism


1. All references to Lenin’s work are from “Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism,” in V. I. Lenin, Selected Works in One Volume (International Publishers, 1980).

2. Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Harvard University Press, 2000).

3. Council of Economic Advisors, “Benefits of Competition and Indicators of Market Power,” April 2016, 5.

4. Hardt and Negri, 4.

5. Saeed Rahnema, “Multinationals and Iranian Industry; 1957-1979,” Journal of Developing Areas (vol. 24, No. 3, April 1990), 294-295. The titles of this typology are from Lazlo Lang, “On the Location Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries,” paper presented at the second round table of RCCDC, Ljubljana and Institute for World Economy, Budapest, October 1985. Compared to other typologies of FDI, this is still very valid.

6. All data of this section are from UNCTAD, World Investment Report; Reforming International Investment Governance (2015).

7. V. I. Lenin, “Imperialism,” 214.

8. U.S. Department of Commerce, “Foreign-based Companies Investing in the U.S. Auto Industry,” 2007.

9. I have tried to discuss some of these in my conversations with twelve prominent theorists and political activists from different parts of the world in my upcoming edited book, Transition from Capitalism: Marxist Perspectives (Palgrave MacMillan, 2017).