A Legacy of Exploitation: Intellectual disability, unpaid labor, & disability services

by Jihan Abbas
  1. J.W. Trent, Inventing the Feeble Mind: A History of Mental Retardation in the United States, Berkley: University of California Press, 1994.
  2. Ibid.,109
  3. Ibid.
  4. This appeared to be true in institutions and asylums in general and thus this practice seems to have extended beyond the experience of those with intellectual disabilities.
  5. K. Johnson & R. Traustadottir, Deinstitutionalization and People with Intellectual Disabilities: In and Out of Institutions, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2005.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Douglass, as cited in Trent, 109.
  11. Trent.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid.
  14. G. Reaume, Remembrance of Patients Past. Chapter 5 “Patients Labour” (pp. 133-180). Oxford, 2000.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Trent.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Johnson & Traustadottir.
  19. While some states, provinces and countries have closed institutions for persons with intellectual disabilities, it is important to note that the practice of institutionalizing persons with intellectual disabilities still persists in many places. With this in mind, “deinstitutionalization” must be problematized as many individuals with intellectual disabilities still find themselves incarcerated in these kinds of sites, as well as similar segregated sites within the community.
  20. Johnson & Traustadottir.
  21. L. Visier, “Sheltered employment for persons with disabilities,” International Labour Review. 1998, 137(3): 347-365.
  22. Ibid.
  23. G. Reaume, “No Profits, Just a Pittance: Work, Compensation, and People Defined as Mentally Disabled in Ontario,” 1964-1990. In S. Noll & J. Trent (eds.) Mental Retardation in America. (pp. 466- 493). New York: University Press,2004.
  24. P. Thornton & N. Lunt, Employment Policies For Disabled People in Eighteen Countries: A Review, Gladnet Collection, Ithaca, NY: Cornell U., 1997.
  25. Ibid.
  26. National Disability rights Network Segregated & Exploited: The failure of the Disability Services System to Provide Quality Work,” January, 2011.
  27. Ibid.
  28. G. Albrecht, The Disability Business: Rehabilitation in America. London: Sage Publications, 1992.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Ibid.
  31. M. Hyde, “Sheltered and Supported Employment in the 1990s: the experience of disabled workers in the UK.,” Disability & Society. 1998, 13(2): 199-215. Page 209.
  32. J.K. Elder, R.W. Conely, & J.H. Noble, “The Service System,” In W.E. Kiernan & J.A. Stark (eds.) Pathways to employment for adults with developmental disabilities. Baltimore: Paul H Brookes, 1986, (53-66).
  33. G. Reaume, “No Profits, Just a Pittance: Work, Compensation, and People Defined as Mentally Disabled in Ontario, 1964-1990,” In S. Noll & J. Trent (eds.) Mental Retardation in America. (pp. 466- 493), NY: New York: University Press, 2004.
  34. J. Black, B. Hamson, & H. Ziegler, “Pricing Practices of Sheltered Workshops Vs. Open Employment. Consumer Implications,” Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability. 13(1) 1987: 53-57. Page 56
  35. T. Little, Streetwise Guide to Supported Employment. Toronto: CMCS, 1993.
  36. D. Test, K. Hinson, J. Solow, & P. Keul, “Job Satisfaction of Persons in Supported employment,” Education and Training in Mental Retardation, 1993, 28(1): 38- 46.
  37. M. Sinnott-Oswald, J. Gliner, & K. Spencer, “Supported and Sheltered Employment: Quality of Life Issues Among Workers with Disabilities,”. Education and Training in Mental Retardation. 1991: 26(4): 388-397.
  38. R. Goldberg, M. McLean, R. LaVigne, J. Fratolillo, & F. Sulliva, “Transition of Persons with Developmental Disability from Extended Sheltered Employment to Competitive employment,” Mental Retardation, 1990 28(5):299-304.