Immigration, African Americans, and Race Discourse

by Stephen Steinberg

Thanks to Ron Hayduk, Joanne Landy, Mark Levitan, Gregory Squires, and members of the New Politics board for their helpful suggestions.

1. Toni Morrison, "On the Back of Blacks," Time, December 2, 1973.

2. Amsterdam News, October 23, 1971.

3. Lawrence H. Fuchs, "The Reactions of Black Americans to Immigration," in Virginia Yans-McLaughlin, Immigration Reconsidered (New York: Oxford, 1990): 294. Also, Jacquelyn Johnson Jackson, "Seeking Common Ground for Blacks and Immigrants," in David E. Simcox, ed., U.S. Immigration in the 1980s (Westview Press, 1988): 92-103.

4. Brinley Thomas, Migration and Economic Growth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973), 330. Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma (New York: McGraw Hill, 1974): 189-90.

5. New Republic, June 24, 1916, 187.

6. Julian L. Simon, "The Case for Greatly Increased Immigration," Public Interest 102 (Winter 1991): 89-103. See also Ben J. Wattenberg & Karl Zinsmeister, "The Case for More Immigration," Commentary 89 (April 1990): 19-25.

7. Help or Hindrance? The Economic Implications of Immigration for African Americans, edited by Daniel S. Hamermesh and Frank D. Bean (Russell Sage Foundation 1998).

8. Steven Shulman & Robert C. Smith, "Immigration and African Americans," in Cecilia A. Conrad, et al,, African Americans in the U.S. Economy (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005): 200.

9. Philip Moss and Chris Tilly, Stories Employers Tell: Race, Skill, and Hiring in America (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001). Roger Waldinger and Michael I. Lichter, How the Other Half Works: Immigration and the Social Organization of Labor (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003); William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Knopf, 1996).

10. Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, Orig. 1955 (New York: Anchor, 1958): 10.

11. Joleen Kirschenman & Kathryn Neckerman, "‘We'd Love to Hire Them But . . . ': The Meaning of Race for Employers," in The Urban Underclass, Christopher Jencks & Paul E. Peterson, eds. (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1991).

12. Nelson Lim, "On the Back of Blacks? Immigrants and the Fortunes of African Americans,: in Roger Waldinger, ed., Strangers at the Gates: New Immigrants in Urban America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001): 186-227.

13. Waldinger & Lichter, 20; italics in original.

14. See Jack Miles, "Blacks vs. Browns," Atlantic Monthly (October 1992).

15. John Ogbu, "Immigrant and Involuntary Minorities in Comparative Perspective," in Minority Status and Schooling (New York: Garland, 1991), and Signithia Fordham & John Ogbu, "Black Students' School Success: Coping with the "Burden of ‘Acting White,'" The Urban Review, v. 18 (3): 176-206.

16. Mary Waters, Black Identities: West Indian Immigrant Dreams and American Realities (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999): 138.

17. Thomas Muller, Immigration and the American City (New York: New York University Press, 1993): 160.

18. Charles Mills, The Racial Contract (Cornell 1997): 18.

19. Jonathan Tilove, "The Gap: In a Single Statistic, the Measure of a Racial Tragedy," Newhouse News Service (May 4, 2005). On a national basis there are nearly 5.5 million youth out of school and jobless. See "Left Behind in the Labor Market" Northeastern's Center for Labor Market Studies, 2002. Also, Mark Levitan, "Out of School, Out of Work . . . Out of Luck? New York City's Disconnected Youth," Community Service Society of New York (January 2005).