Cuban Civil Society


1. This position became stronger as a response to the Helms-Burton law, which tried to strengthen non-governmental organizations in order to widen the public sphere that was not subordinated to the state.

2. All abbreviations stand for the original names in Spanish.

3. During the Twentieth Congress, on February 22, Raul Castro stated, “The CTC and its labor unions shall focus on what is important, which is to execute its activity to successfully implement the party political and economic program [“lineamientos”] and to develop a diverse and broad political and ideological work for the defense of the union of Cubans.”

4. See here.

5. See here.

6. To see a profound analysis of the groups that oppose the government, see Geoffray (2012).