Brazil: Lula, Rousseff, and the Workers Party Establishment in Power


1. Margaret Keck, The Workers Party and Democratization in Brazil (Yale University Press, 1992). Keck’s account captured some of the excitement of the early days of the PT. 

2. João Machado, “The Experience of building DS and the PT, from 1979 to the first Lula government,” International Viewpoint

3. Perry Anderson, “Lula’s Brazil,” London Review of Books (March 31, 2011). Wendy Hunter, The Transformation of the Workers’ Party in Brazil, 1989-2009 (Cambridge University Press, 2010), passim. Hunter’s excellent account of the taming of the Workers Party might be favorably compared to Carl Schorske’s classic German Social Democracy, 1905-1917: The Development of the Great Schism.

4. Francisco de Oliveira, “Lula in the Labyrinth,” New Left Review (42, November-December 2006). 

5 André Singer, Os Sentidos do Lulismo: Reforma gradual e pacto conservador (São Paulo, Brazil: Companhia das Letras, 2012), passim. Lula’s shifting of the foundation of his support from the Southeast’s working and middle classes to the Northeast’s peasants forms a central axis of his argument that under Lula the PT had become a fundamentally establishment party.

6. Though some of its leading intellectuals, such as Caio Prado Júnior, A Revolucão Brasileira (São Paulo: Editôr Brasiliense, 1966), criticized the PCB’s popular front politics.

7. Ronald H. Chilcote, The Brazilian Communist Party: Conflict and Integration 1922-1972 (Oxford University Press, 1974), 3-97; Robert J. Alexander, Trotskyism in Latin America (Stanford University, 1973), 69-87.

8. Herwin Loman, “Brazil’s economic model: In need of a revamp,” Rabobank Economic Research Department.

9. James Petras, “Brazil: Extractive Capitalism and the Great Leap Backward." 

10. The legacy of slavery is one of the great issues of Brazilian history—as it is of American history. Communists were some of the pioneers of the study of the colonial economy and of slavery. Caio Prado Jr.’s Formação do Brasil Contemporâneo [1942] (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2011) is the classic foundation for the Marxist analysis of the Brazilian economy.

11. Plinio de Arruda Sampaio Jr., ed., Jornadas de Junho: A revolta popular em debate (São Paulo: ICP-Insituto Caio Prado Jr., 2014). The several essays provide an excellent account of various aspects of the June Days. 

12. "Pesquisa de Opinao Pública Sobre as Manifestações," IBOPE (accessed 9/11/14).